Biochemical parameters have been the most reliable and accurate measures for detection of diabetes. Of the biochemical parameters blood and urine tests are commonly used in the prevention and treatment of diabetes.
• FBG (fasting blood glucose): This test measures levels of glucose after a period of fasting, usually at least
eight hours without food or liquid (except water). Normal range 70-110 md/dl
• RBG (random blood glucose): A random sugar test can be performed at any time and helps identify high blood sugars
(hyperglycaemia). Normal range 79-140 mg/dl
• PPG (postprandial glucose): The test is performed exact after two hours after consumption of meal. Normal value
• Urine test: This test is performed in individuals with diabetes to detect severe hyperglycaemia by looking for presence of ketones in the urine.
Maintaining blood sugars is important for both diabetics as well as normal individuals to prevent the onset of diabetes. Every diabetic patient should have a blood glucose meter and should keep a check on the blood sugars to maintain optimum health. Eating at the right time and in the right amount is as important as eating the right food.
When to eat?
Diabetics need to eat at regular intervals thus spacing out meals become essential to maintain a sustained flow of glucose in the body and prevent both hypo (low) and hyper (high) glycaemia. Having 6-8 meals is recommended. Skipping meals is not advisable. A bed time snack is essential to prevent low blood sugars at night. Having a snack during or before exercise is equally essential.
What to eat?
It is best to have a variety of foods that are high in vitamins, minerals, fibre and protein and low in saturated fat and refined sugar. Such foods include whole grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, low fat dairy and lean meat (fish and poultry). Healthy food choices are good not only for diabetics but good for everyone.
How much to eat?
Blood sugars are affected most by the carbohydrate content of the food consumed. If the portion size isn’t right it will be harder to control weight and blood glucose. Based on the caloric requirement the portion size for each food group will differ. Overloading a single meal with carbohydrates is not advisable, so space them out through the day to have a minimal effect on your blood sugar levels.